Senie laiki

Senie laiki ir laika posms cilvēces vēsturē starp aizvēsturi un viduslaiku sākumu Eiropā (ap 3000 gadu p.m.ē. līdz 500 gadam m.ē.). Citās pasaules daļās seno laiku posma laika robežas var atšķirties, piemēram, Ķīnas vēturē par seno laiku posma beigām dažreiz uzskata Cjiņu dinastijas sākumu,[1] Indijas vēsturē Čolas dinastijas sākumu,[2][3][4] bet AmerikāAmerikas kolonizēšanas sākumu.[5]

Senās Grieķijas dzejnieks Homērs.

Vēstures rakstības posma ilgums ir apmēram 5—5,5 tūkstoši gadu, sākot ar ķīļu rakstu šumeriem.[6][7] Termins "klasiskie senie laiki" jeb antīkie laiki parasti tiek attiecināts uz grieķu un romiešu vēsturi, kas sākas ar pirmo olimpiādi (776. gadā p.m.ē.). Šis datums arī gandrīz sakrīt ar tradicionālo Romas dibināšanas datumu (753. gadā p.m.ē.). Par seno laiku beigām Eiropā parasti tiek uzskatīts Rietumromas impērijas krišanas gads (476),[8][9] bet dažreiz arī imperatora Justiniāna I nāves gads (565),[10] islāma rašanās (622)[11] vai imperatora Kārļa Lielā valdīšanas laiks[12].

No eiropocentrisma viedokļa būtiskākās Seno laiku civilizācijas:

Piezīmes un atsaucesLabot

  1. Gernet, J. (1996). A history of Chinese civilization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  2. Elphinstone, M. (1889). The history of India. London: Murray.
  3. Smith, V. A. (1904). The early history of India from 600 B.C. to the Muhammadan conquest, including the invasion of Alexander the Great. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  4. Hoernle, A. F. R., & Stark, H. A. (1906). A history of India. Cuttack: Orissa mission Press.
  5. Priest, J. (1834). American antiquities, and discoveries in the West: being an exhibition of the evidence that an ancient population of partially civilized nations, differing entirely from those of the present Indians, peopled America many centuries before its discovery by Columbus, and inquiries into their origin, with a copious description of many of their stupendous works, now in ruins; with conjectures concerning what may have become of them; compiled from travels, authentic sources, and the researches of antiquarian societies. Albany: Printed by Hoffman & White
  6. The Origin and Development of the Cuneiform System of Writing, Samuel Noah Kramer, Thirty Nine Firsts In Recorded History, pp 381—383
  7. WordNet Search — 3.0 Archived 2005. gada 17. septembrī, Wayback Machine vietnē., «History»
  8. Clare, I. S. (1906). Library of universal history: containing a record of the human race from the earliest historical period to the present time; embracing a general survey of the progress of mankind in national and social life, civil government, religion, literature, science and art. New York: Union Book. Page 1519 (cf., Ancient history, as we have already seen, ended with the fall of the Western Roman Empire; […])
  9. United Center for Research and Training in History. (1973). Bulgarian historical review. Sofia: Pub. House of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Page 43. (cf. … in the history of Western Europe, which marks both the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages, is the fall of the Western Empire.)
  10. Robinson, C. A. (1951). Ancient history from prehistoric times to the death of Justinian. New York: Macmillan.
  11. Breasted, J. H. (1916). Ancient times, a history of the early world: an introduction to the study of ancient history and the career of early man. Boston: Ginn and Company.
  12. Myers, P. V. N. (1916). Ancient history. New York [etc.]: Ginn and company.

Ārējās saitesLabot